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5 фактов о кокаине, которые вы не знали

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include an intense feeling of happiness, sexual arousal, loss of contact with reality, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. High doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last. Your IP address will be recorded. As with all injected illicit substances , there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used.

Cocaine Franck Boclet- как в тексте популярной поп-рок композиции Эрика Клэптона " Кокаин". " Если ты хочешь оторваться, ты должен взять его с собой - Кокаин. Franck Boclet Cocaine – эпатирующий, оригинальный парфюм для мужчин и женщин из новой коллекции ароматов бренда Franck Boclet, представленный в году. Оригинальный аромат вдохновлен волнующими ми: рок-н-ролл, винил и мятежный дух протеста сквозят в каждой ноте уникальной ароматической композиции Cocaine.  Многие оценивают Cocaine как запах гречневой каши, жвачки, навоза, конопли (это все цитаты)). Кокаин. В каком то смысле оправдывает опасное название, а в каком-то нет. При взгляде на пирамиду изумленно вскидываешь брови: табак и тубероза? Как это звучит? Устраивайтесь поудобнее, расскажу как оно на самом деле. Аромат туберозы долгое время находился за пределами моего обонятельного восприятия, но послушав ряд ароматов я примерно поняла как я ощущаю этот загадочный компонент. . Дизайн парфюмерии Franck Boclet лаконичен. InPadre Blas Valera wrote:. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 2. Внимательность, энергия, уверенность, сила.... The rectum and the vaginal canal is where the majority of the drug would be taken up through the membranes lining its walls. Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Nasal insufflation known colloquially as "snorting", "sniffing", or "blowing" is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine.

5 фактов о кокаине, которые вы не знали: p_i_f — LiveJournal

Одновременно яркий и цветочно-восточный характер аромата. International medical guide for ships. На вопросы отвечает Марина Берковская — врач-эндокринолог и диетолог.

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Sophisticated drug subs are the latest tool drug runners are using to bring cocaine north from Colombia, it was reported on 20 March Chemical Research in Toxicology. Feiling T Green line is cocaine and any opioid top line in Archived PDF from the original on 3 May

Post a new comment 2 comments. Cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation. Для кого унисекс. Archived from the original on 4 April It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed. This article needs additional citations for verification. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 20 March

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Typically, land vehicles are driven across the U. These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction. Post a new comment 2 comments. Archived from the original on 8 February The cultivation of coca has become an attractive economic decision for many growers due to the combination of several factors, including the lack of other employment alternatives, the lower profitability of alternative crops in official crop substitution programs, the eradication-related damages to non-drug farms, the spread of new strains of the coca plant due to persistent worldwide demand.

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Забыли пароль? Дом длиной м: хозяин под одной крышей объединил жилище, ресторан, сарай и грядки с овощами сегодня, Cocaine is now predominantly used for nasal and lacrimal duct surgery.

Some otolaryngology ENT specialists occasionally use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. Even when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects. Cocaine hydrochloride Goprelto , an ester local anesthetic, was approved for medical use in the United States in December , and is indicated for the introduction of local anesthesia of the mucous membranes for diagnostic procedures and surgeries on or through the nasal cavities of adults.

The most common adverse reactions in people treated with Goprelto are headache and epistaxis. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant. When inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate baking soda and water.

Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria , increased energy and motor activity, and increased feelings of competence and sexuality. Coca leaves are typically mixed with an alkaline substance such as lime and chewed into a wad that is retained in the mouth between gum and cheek much the same as chewing tobacco is chewed and sucked of its juices. The juices are absorbed slowly by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed.

Alternatively, coca leaves can be infused in liquid and consumed like tea. Ingesting coca leaves generally is an inefficient means of administering cocaine.

Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not readily absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a highly alkaline substance such as lime can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach.

The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is partly catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed.

Nevertheless, cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped even one cup of coca leaf infusion. Compared to ingestion, the faster absorption of insufflated cocaine results in quicker attainment of maximum drug effects. Coca tea , an infusion of coca leaves, is also a traditional method of consumption. The tea has often been recommended for travelers in the Andes to prevent altitude sickness. The article stated that drinking two cups of the tea per day gave a mild stimulation , increased heart rate , and mood elevation, and the tea was essentially harmless.

Despite this, the DEA seized several shipments in Hawaii , Chicago , Georgia , and several locations on the East Coast of the United States , and the product was removed from the shelves. Nasal insufflation known colloquially as "snorting", "sniffing", or "blowing" is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine.

In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was Nosebleeds after cocaine insufflation are due to irritation and damage of mucus membranes by foreign particles and adulterants and not the cocaine itself; [ citation needed ] as a vasoconstrictor, cocaine acts to reduce bleeding.

Rolled up banknotes , hollowed-out pens , cut straws , pointed ends of keys, specialized spoons, long fingernails , and clean tampon applicators are often used to insufflate cocaine. Such devices are often called "tooters" by users. The cocaine typically is poured onto a flat, hard surface such as a mirror, CD case or book and divided into "bumps," "lines" or "rails," and then insufflated.

Drug injection by turning the drug into a solution provides the highest blood levels of drug in the shortest amount of time. This is colloquially referred to as a "bell ringer".

In a study of cocaine users, the average time taken to reach peak subjective effects was 3. Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug. As with all injected illicit substances , there is a risk of the user contracting blood-borne infections if sterile injecting equipment is not available or used.

Additionally, because cocaine is a vasoconstrictor, and usage often entails multiple injections within several hours or less, subsequent injections are progressively more difficult to administer, which in turn may lead to more injection attempts and more consequences from improperly performed injection.

An injected mixture of cocaine and heroin , known as " speedball " is a particularly dangerous combination, as the converse effects of the drugs actually complement each other, but may also mask the symptoms of an overdose.

Experimentally, cocaine injections can be delivered to animals such as fruit flies to study the mechanisms of cocaine addiction.

Inhalation by smoking cocaine is one of the several ways the drug is consumed. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates.

Smoking freebase or crack cocaine is most often accomplished using a pipe made from a small glass tube, often taken from " love roses ", small glass tubes with a paper rose that are promoted as romantic gifts.

Crack smokers also sometimes smoke through a soda can with small holes on the side or bottom. Powdered cocaine is also sometimes smoked, though heat destroys much of the chemical; smokers often sprinkle it on cannabis. Another way users consume cocaine is by making it into a suppository which they then insert into the anus or vagina. The drug is then absorbed by the membranes of these body parts. Little research has been focused on the suppository anal or vaginal insertion method of administration, also known as "plugging".

This method of administration is commonly administered using an oral syringe. Cocaine can be dissolved in water and withdrawn into an oral syringe which may then be lubricated and inserted into the anus or vagina before the plunger is pushed. Anecdotal evidence of its effects is infrequently discussed, possibly due to social taboos in many cultures.

The rectum and the vaginal canal is where the majority of the drug would be taken up through the membranes lining its walls. With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itching , fast heart rate , hallucinations , and paranoid delusions or sensations of insects crawling on the skin. Anxiety, paranoia , and restlessness can also occur, especially during the comedown. With excessive dosage, tremors, convulsions and increased body temperature are observed.

Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. Green line is cocaine and any opioid top line in Gray line is cocaine without any opioids bottom line in Yellow line is cocaine and other synthetic opioids middle line in Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion.

Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm. Chronic cocaine intake causes strong imbalances of transmitter levels in order to compensate extremes. However, studies suggest cocaine abusers do not show normal age-related loss of striatal dopamine transporter DAT sites, suggesting cocaine has neuroprotective properties for dopamine neurons.

Depression with suicidal ideation may develop in very heavy users. Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters , neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate a long term damage of dopamine neurons.

All these effects contribute a rise in tolerance thus requiring a larger dosage to achieve the same effect. Physical withdrawal is not dangerous. Physiological changes caused by cocaine withdrawal include vivid and unpleasant dreams, insomnia or hypersomnia, increased appetite and psychomotor retardation or agitation.

Physical side effects from chronic smoking of cocaine include coughing up blood , bronchospasm , itching , fever , diffuse alveolar infiltrates without effusions, pulmonary and systemic eosinophilia , chest pain, lung trauma, sore throat, asthma , hoarse voice, dyspnea shortness of breath , and an aching, flu -like syndrome.

Cocaine constricts blood vessels , dilates pupils , and increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. It can also cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea.

A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. However, cocaine does often cause involuntary tooth grinding, known as bruxism , which can deteriorate tooth enamel and lead to gingivitis. Cocaine use also promotes the formation of blood clots. Chronic intranasal usage can degrade the cartilage separating the nostrils the septum nasi , leading eventually to its complete disappearance. Due to the absorption of the cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride, the remaining hydrochloride forms a dilute hydrochloric acid.

Cocaine may also greatly increase the risk of developing rare autoimmune or connective tissue diseases such as lupus , Goodpasture syndrome , vasculitis , glomerulonephritis , Stevens—Johnson syndrome , and other diseases.

Cocaine use leads to an increased risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes. This change can be identified rather quickly, and may be sustained weeks after the last dose of the drug.

Cocaine dependence is a form of psychological dependence that develops from regular cocaine use and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use. Cocaine is known to have a number of deleterious effects during pregnancy. Pregnant people who use cocaine have an elevated risk of placental abruption , a condition where the placenta detaches from the uterus and causes bleeding.

Cocaine is also teratogenic, meaning that it can cause birth defects and fetal malformations. In-utero exposure to cocaine is associated with behavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular malformations, intrauterine growth restriction , preterm birth, urinary tract malformations, and cleft lip and palate.

Dopamine transmitter released during neural signaling is normally recycled via the transporter; i. The dopamine transporter can no longer perform its reuptake function, and thus dopamine accumulates in the synaptic cleft. The increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse activates post-synaptic dopamine receptors, which makes the drug rewarding and promotes the compulsive use of cocaine.

Cocaine affects certain serotonin 5-HT receptors; in particular, it has been shown to antagonize the 5-HT3 receptor , which is a ligand-gated ion channel. The overabundance of 5-HT3 receptors in cocaine conditioned rats display this trait, however the exact effect of 5-HT3 in this process is unclear.

Cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation. Further, cocaine binds in such a way as to inhibit a hydrogen bond innate to DAT.

Research studies have suggested that the affinity for the transporter is not what is involved in habituation of the substance so much as the conformation and binding properties to where and how on the transporter the molecule binds. Sigma receptors are affected by cocaine, as cocaine functions as a sigma ligand agonist. Cocaine also blocks sodium channels , thereby interfering with the propagation of action potentials ; [72] [45] thus, like lignocaine and novocaine , it acts as a local anesthetic.

It also functions on the binding sites to the dopamine and serotonin sodium dependent transport area as targets as separate mechanisms from its reuptake of those transporters; unique to its local anesthetic value which makes it in a class of functionality different from both its own derived phenyltropanes analogues which have that removed. In addition to this cocaine has some target binding to the site of the Kappa-opioid receptor as well. The locomotor enhancing properties of cocaine may be attributable to its enhancement of dopaminergic transmission from the substantia nigra.

Cocaine can often cause reduced food intake, many chronic users lose their appetite and can experience severe malnutrition and significant weight loss. Cocaine effects, further, are shown to be potentiated for the user when used in conjunction with new surroundings and stimuli, and otherwise novel environs.

Cocaine has a short half life of 0. Depending on liver and kidney function, cocaine metabolites are detectable in urine. Detection of cocaine metabolites in hair is possible in regular users until the sections of hair grown during use are cut or fall out.

Cocaine in its purest form is a white, pearly product. Cocaine appearing in powder form is a salt , typically cocaine hydrochloride. Street cocaine is often adulterated or "cut" with talc , lactose , sucrose , glucose , mannitol , inositol , caffeine , procaine , phencyclidine , phenytoin , lignocaine , strychnine , amphetamine , or heroin. The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation — with ammonia or baking soda — and the presence of impurities.

It will generally range from white to a yellowish cream to a light brown. Its texture will also depend on the adulterants, origin and processing of the powdered cocaine, and the method of converting the base. It ranges from a crumbly texture, sometimes extremely oily, to a hard, almost crystalline nature. Cocaine — a tropane alkaloid — is a weakly alkaline compound, and can therefore combine with acidic compounds to form salts. Different salts dissolve to a greater or lesser extent in various solvents — the hydrochloride salt is polar in character and is quite soluble in water.

As the name implies, "freebase" is the base form of cocaine, as opposed to the salt form. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble. Pure cocaine is prepared by neutralizing its compounding salt with an alkaline solution, which will precipitate to non-polar basic cocaine. It is further refined through aqueous-solvent liquid—liquid extraction. Smoking or vaporizing cocaine and inhaling it into the lungs produces an almost immediate "high" that can be very powerful and addicting quite rapidly — this initial crescendo of stimulation is known as a "rush".

While the stimulating effects may last for hours, the euphoric sensation is very brief, prompting the user to smoke more immediately. This effectively destroys some of the cocaine and yields a sharp, acrid, and foul-tasting smoke.

The origin of the name "crack" comes from the "crackling" sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker "crack" that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i. Coca herbal infusion also referred to as coca tea is used in coca-leaf producing countries much as any herbal medicinal infusion would elsewhere in the world. The free and legal commercialization of dried coca leaves under the form of filtration bags to be used as "coca tea" has been actively promoted by the governments of Peru and Bolivia for many years as a drink having medicinal powers.

In Peru, the National Coca Company , a state-run corporation, sells cocaine-infused teas and other medicinal products and also exports leaves to the U. Visitors to the city of Cuzco in Peru, and La Paz in Bolivia are greeted with the offering of coca leaf infusions prepared in teapots with whole coca leaves purportedly to help the newly arrived traveler overcome the malaise of high altitude sickness.

The effects of drinking coca tea are a mild stimulation and mood lift. In order to prevent the demonization of this product, its promoters publicize the unproven concept that much of the effect of the ingestion of coca leaf infusion would come from the secondary alkaloids, as being not only quantitatively different from pure cocaine but also qualitatively different.

It has been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. In one controversial study, coca leaf infusion was used—in addition to counseling—to treat 23 addicted coca-paste smokers in Lima , Peru. Relapses fell from an average of four times per month before treatment with coca tea to one during the treatment. These results suggest that the administration of coca leaf infusion plus counseling would be an effective method for preventing relapse during treatment for cocaine addiction.

Importantly, these results also suggest strongly that the primary pharmacologically active metabolite in coca leaf infusions is actually cocaine and not the secondary alkaloids. Since then, Robert Robinson and Edward Leete have made significant contributions to the mechanism of the synthesis. The second addition occurs through a Claisen condensation. This produces a racemic mixture of the 2-substituted pyrrolidine, with the retention of the thioester from the Claisen condensation.

In formation of tropinone from racemic ethyl [2,C 2 ] 4 Nmethylpyrrolidinyl oxobutanoate there is no preference for either stereoisomer. The stereoselectivity of this reaction was further investigated through study of prochiral methylene hydrogen discrimination.

The benzoyl moiety required for the formation of the cocaine diester is synthesized from phenylalanine via cinnamic acid. The biosynthesis begins with L- Glutamine , which is derived to L- ornithine in plants. The major contribution of L-ornithine and L- arginine as a precursor to the tropane ring was confirmed by Edward Leete. In animals, however, the urea cycle derives putrescine from ornithine. L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, [96] which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine.

Hydrolysis of the imine derives N -carbamoylputrescine followed with hydrolysis of the urea to form putrescine. The separate pathways of converting ornithine to putrescine in plants and animals have converged.

A SAM-dependent N -methylation of putrescine gives the N -methylputrescine product, which then undergoes oxidative deamination by the action of diamine oxidase to yield the aminoaldehyde. The biosynthesis of the tropane alkaloid , however, is still uncertain. Decarboxylation leads to tropane alkaloid formation. The reduction of tropinone is mediated by NADPH -dependent reductase enzymes, which have been characterized in multiple plant species.

Cocaine and its major metabolites may be quantified in blood, plasma, or urine to monitor for abuse, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances.

When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would incapacitate a cocaine-naive individual, and the chronic user often has high baseline values of the metabolites in his system. Cautious interpretation of testing results may allow a distinction between passive or active usage, and between smoking versus other routes of administration.

Similar claims have been made in web forums on that topic. Cocaine may be detected by law enforcement using the Scott reagent. The test can easily generate false positives for common substances and must be confirmed with a laboratory test. The shade of brown shown by the chloroform is proportional to the cocaine content.

This test is not cross sensitive to heroin, methamphetamine, benzocaine, procaine and a number of other drugs but other chemicals could cause false positives.

According to a United Nations report, England and Wales are the countries with the highest rate of cocaine usage 2. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in Europe behind cannabis. Since the mids, overall cocaine usage in Europe has been on the rise, but usage rates and attitudes tend to vary between countries.

Approximately 17 million Europeans 5. About 1. The ratio of male to female users is approximately 3. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities. Cocaine is the second most popular illegal recreational drug in the United States behind cannabis [] and the U. It is also popular amongst college students, as a party drug. A study throughout the entire United States has reported that around 48 percent of people who graduated from high school in have used cocaine recreationally during some point in their lifetime, compared to approximately 20 percent of students who graduated between the years of and In the s and s, the drug became particularly popular in the disco culture as cocaine usage was very common and popular in many discos such as Studio For over a thousand years South American indigenous peoples have chewed the leaves of Erythroxylon coca , a plant that contains vital nutrients as well as numerous alkaloids , including cocaine.

The coca leaf was, and still is, chewed almost universally by some indigenous communities. The remains of coca leaves have been found with ancient Peruvian mummies, and pottery from the time period depicts humans with bulged cheeks, indicating the presence of something on which they are chewing. When the Spanish arrived in South America , most at first ignored aboriginal claims that the leaf gave them strength and energy, and declared the practice of chewing it the work of the Devil.

When they wished to make themselves drunk and out of judgment they chewed a mixture of tobacco and coca leaves which make them go as they were out of their wittes. In , Padre Blas Valera wrote:. Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots.

And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it? Although the stimulant and hunger-suppressant properties of coca had been known for many centuries, the isolation of the cocaine alkaloid was not achieved until Various European scientists had attempted to isolate cocaine, but none had been successful for two reasons: the knowledge of chemistry required was insufficient at the time, [ citation needed ] and contemporary conditions of sea-shipping from South America could degrade the cocaine in the plant samples available to European chemists.

The cocaine alkaloid was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Gaedcke in Gaedcke named the alkaloid "erythroxyline", and published a description in the journal Archiv der Pharmazie. Многие оценивают Cocaine как запах гречневой каши, жвачки, навоза, конопли это все цитаты.

На вкус и цвет все фломастеры, конечно, разные, ведь лично для меня этот популярный, то ли из-за названия, то ли из-за громкости аромат — острый, непростой. Тубероза в нем особенная, непривычно сливочная, а будто карамельная, тягучая, густая. На ее фоне маячат древесные и табачные ноты. Особенно хорошо композиция на мне сидит в прохладу и в ветреную погоду, на просторе. В жару или закрытых помещениях может задушить окружающих. Осторожно дозирую, так как, все же, Cocaine насыщенный, стойкий, яркий чересчур.

In the United States, the development of "crack" cocaine introduced the substance to a generally poorer inner-city market. Виды доставки Курьерская доставка Самовывоз из пунктов выдачи заказов Самовывоз из почтовых отделений Почты России 3. Ancient anaesthesia. Archived from the original on 11 October
McDonald's Manager Sold Cocaine with Burgers and Fries: Cops, time: 0:42

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Archived from the original on 11 November Срок хранения заказа можно продлить, обратившись в Службу Поддержки Клиентов. The origin of the name "crack" comes from the "crackling" sound and hence the onomatopoeic moniker "crack" that is produced when the cocaine and its impurities i. The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques to U.

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Critical Care Clinics. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates. London: The Independent UK.

25 жутких фактов о кокаине - одном из самых чудовищных запрещённых веществ

Это означает" Полностью захватывающий"!! Views Read View source View history. It is practically insoluble in water whereas hydrochloride salt is water-soluble.

Bulk cargo ships are also used to smuggle cocaine to staging sites in the western Caribbean— Gulf of Mexico area. New Health Advisor. Psychology Press.

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Aside from the toxic effects of cocaine, there is also danger of circulatory emboli from the insoluble substances that may be used to cut the drug. Cocaine is smoked by inhaling the vapor produced when solid cocaine is heated to the point that it sublimates. Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. Cocaine dependence is a form of psychological dependence that develops from regular cocaine use and produces a withdrawal state with emotional-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use.

Cocaine has been demonstrated to bind as to directly stabilize the DAT transporter on the open outward-facing conformation. Ion channel modulators. The color of "crack" cocaine depends upon several factors including the origin of the cocaine used, the method of preparation — with ammonia or baking soda — and the presence of impurities. With excessive or prolonged use, the drug can cause itchingfast heart ratehallucinationsand paranoid delusions or sensations of insects crawling on the skin. Retrieved 31 December United States Department of Defense.

Cocaine Franck Boclet- как в тексте популярной поп-рок композиции Эрика Клэптона " Кокаин". " Если ты хочешь оторваться, ты должен взять его с собой - Кокаин.

Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion. Archived from the original on 11 November Mexican TCOs pose the greatest criminal drug threat to the United States; no other group is currently positioned to challenge them. Namespaces Article Talk. A common but untrue belief is that the smoking of cocaine chemically breaks down tooth enamel and causes tooth decay. For other uses, see Cocaine disambiguation. Купить закладку Красный мухомор (грибы) Катовице Retrieved 4 June Если вы зарегистрированы на других сайтах, авторизуйтесь по протоколу OpenID: livejournal. Once powdered caustic soda was added to this, the cocaine precipitated and could be removed by filtration through a cloth. In London had the highest amount of cocaine in its sewage out of 50 European cities. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate baking soda and water.

Nasal insufflation known colloquially as "snorting", "sniffing", or "blowing" is a common method of ingestion of recreational powdered cocaine. Retrieved 23 January Archived from the original on 10 September Blockers Amiloride Benzamil Triamterene. Topical cocaine can be used as a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose.

How does a top Colombian smuggler get cocaine past Europe's sniffer dogs? - BBC, time: 6:17

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